ARTS 230 Shaping the Environment

ARTS 230 Shaping the Environment 

ARTS 230 Shaping the Environment


Use the piece that your team selected in class during Week 2 as an example. Using this building explain how a building acts as a kind of sculpture to transform the space around it. Look through your textbook for an example of a sculpture that you feel would amplify the message that your selected building communicates to onlookers. Present your team’s explanation for how the building and the sculpture might work together to create a unified message to the class in a Microsoft® PowerPoint®presentation which contains 6- to 8-slides with notes. *Note: A Title slide, Agenda slide, Introduction slide, Questions Slide, and a Reference slide do not count toward the final slide count – your slide count should only include content slides


What is ‘Environment-shaping?’

While useful as a starting point, the CSIS Task Framework must introduce a

methodology for selecting and prioritizing tasks in order to be of more than

marginal analytical benefit. It does, however, comport with the US government’s

approach to national development programmes in that most USAID national

programmes are divided out by function. Within USAID, the most extreme

internal division remains between those concerned with emergency humanitarian

relief and those whose purpose is to address long-term development. The

Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) manages the logistics of the food

‘pipeline’ and food distribution, while the ‘rest’ of USAID develops policy and

manages contracts with implementers with the goal of ‘development’. Less

extreme divisions within the development community are also commonplace.

Sectors are largely treated independently from one another. Whether government institution building, community development, health programmes, female

or adult education, small business promotion, or what have you, the relationship

between these sectors is rarely defined, and therefore even more rarely

accounted for in the design of the programmes themselves.

For the purposes of this essay, to clarify how environmental-shaping would

relate to and impact upon existing policy frameworks, development assistance

can be broken down into two categories: direct assistance and indirect


Direct assistance is delivered directly to the recipient for immediate

consumption, usage or employ. This type of assistance, such as food aid, medical

supplies and treatment, heating fuel, or shelter, is characterized by its shortterm nature. There are no expectations that direct assistance will have longterm development impacts, though it might alleviate hunger, sickness, cold or

rain. In most cases direct assistance is composed of consumables such as

foodstuffs, portable short-lived equipment or devices such as the water purifying

Reverse Osmosis Purification Units (ROPU), or tents and other temporary shelter.

Certain forms of assistance, such as seeds, rakes and hoes or even micro-loans

are delivered with an expectation of some medium-term effects, but are highly

localized, or even individual in impact. In security sectors direct assistance

includes the provision of foreign troops, police or gendarme, or military advisors

to provide security in the absence of indigenous security capabilities.

Indirect assistance is not delivered directly to the population of a country, but

instead focuses on governments or other institutions designed to deliver services

or provide for social, economic or security needs. Thus indirect assistance


includes support for a government’s institutional capacity in any sector be it

an education or finance ministry, ‘train and equip’ programmes for new military

and police forces, and assistance in setting up indigenous systems for waste

collection or delivery of medical services. Indirect assistance is not necessarily

given with a government in mind. Local NGO or ‘civil society’ capacity building

programmes are also often the targets of indirect assistance.

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